Clients often ask about the beam angles on our SeaFire lights and how much coverage and distance each will provide. Some will say, “I don’t think 60 degree beam angle is large enough” or “What beam angle should I be using?.” The answer largely depends on the application in which you intend to use our lights but also hinges on your understanding of the definition “Beam Angle”.
Using the diagram on Figure 1 as an example you will notice that the center point of the lamp has a luminous intensity of 2000 and that the intensity fades on each side the further out you travel. When the luminous intensity reaches 50%, or in this case 1000, you mark those points and measure the angle between them.
Often times this information will be displayed on a polar graph. (Figure 2) A polar graph allows an engineer to assess whether the luminaire has a “narrow” or “broad” distribution, gauge its symmetry, and determine absolute or relative intensity on the light’s axis. Using Figure 2 as an example, the luminous intensity at the center of the lamp is roughly 2200. This particular lamp has a very narrow and focused distribution which is reflected in how drastically the intensity drops at 10 degrees. Many people misinterpret polar graphs as the actual “throw pattern” of the light when actually it just graphs the intensity change at different angles from center. Understanding how to properly interpret polar graphs and beam angles are extremely helpful in determining the right product for the job!
If you have more questions on the science behind our SeaFire lights as well as understanding beam angles or graphs you can contact us here.
David Walker left our world on 05/15/2014,
We had planned his retirement party for just next week, bought him a gift for his boat so he could stay in touch. He was taking off up the inland passage with the family for the summer. He’d been working tirelessly on the boat for the past three years getting ready for the point in his life when he could take the time to travel. He had a hard time getting away from us, claimed to love his job and was always so diligent he would show up at odd hours and during his vacation time to make sure we and his customers were well taken care of.
I will miss him, we all will. He left this world in such a hurry. One minute enjoying the company of his family, a perfect evening on the waterfront in his beautiful home on the Lake and the next moment he’s gone. Victim of a tragic accident, so bizarre only an accomplished story teller to come up with circumstances so random.
David was a joy to work with, always a smile and a kind word, an old soul and a true gentleman in every way. They say the good die young and the rest of us carry on to learn the lessons of life. There are worse things in life than death and I’m sure David is in another place enjoying the comforts earned from a life well lived.
The light in this world is a little less bright for the loss of a good man. Our hearts are heavy for his loving family.
David would be the first to say, “Live this day like it could be your last, tomorrow is not a guarantee”.
We love you Dave, we will miss the pleasure of your company, we won’t forget you. You have brought joy to our lives, shown us the meaning of grace, and left a lasting impression on us all. We wish you fair winds and following seas….
Your MER Family,
50 Years In The Making – By Michael Hudson
a: A thick, low post, usually of iron or steel, mounted on a wharf or the like, to which mooring lines from vessels are attached.
b: A measure of the pulling force of a vessel against a stationary object like a bollard. i.e. Bollard Pull.
c: The best engine and generators on the planet.
Fifty years ago, MER Equipment was founded to provide marine machinery and support to commercial operators. Over time, we’ve learned a few things about how to build a machine that is dependable and provides the lowest possible operating cost. As you can imagine, we’ve gotten a lot of feedback from our valued customers on what works, and what doesn’t. Everything we’ve learned and everything we’ve been taught has been distilled into our engines and generators. The result of 50 years of refinement is our BOLLARD Engines & Generators line.
A Bollard generator set, propulsion engine, or hydraulic power unit is engineered for the most demanding applications. If you are an operator who makes your living with a Bollard, you have high expectations for dependability and strive for the lowest, long term operating costs. You want it to be quiet, smooth, and run like a top. It needs to be sized right and have the motor starting capacity to match whatever gets thrown at it. You want total solutions which consider where your engine will be installed and how it will be used. You demand careful thought be put into the design to account for serviceability, and need the accessories to go with it. We’ve put thousands of hours into the development and testing of products like our SeaDrive hydraulic pump drive, SCOR lube oil regeneration systems, and SuperFlex exhaust systems and blanketing, so they’ll integrate seamlessly with the engine you buy. To back it all up you count on the 24/7 service and support that comes with a Bollard. We’ll walk you through a trouble shoot even if you didn’t buy your engine from us. Each machine is custom built to meet your specific requirements.
Bollard Equipment will be built in Seattle near Fishermen’s Terminal. Fittingly enough, our new facility is located in part of the old MARCO yard. We invite you to work with our team of Application Specialists, designers, engineers, electrician and fabricators to build and customize the machinery that’s right for you. You can also count on our Parts and Service Support teams to be ready when you need them. Please go to www. merequipment.com for more information.
Understanding Torsional Vibration & the Importance of TVA – By Spencer Bailey
Destructive torsional vibration occurs when different pieces of rotating equipment don’t get along. When designing or building a piece of engine driven equipment, it’s important to consider the torsional properties of the different components being joined. Failing to account for these internal forces can lead to rattling, excessive noise, poor performance, and even catastrophic failure.
Torsional Vibration has become more common in diesel driven equipment than in years past. The large, slow turning, diesel of the past has been replaced by smaller, high RPM, engines. However, the equipment being driven has largely remained unchanged.
This shift in the relationship of size and displacement between the engine and driven machinery has increased the chance of torsional incompatibility. That’s not a big deal, but it has put a greater emphasis on
performing a Torsional Vibration Analysis (TVA) to ensure compatibility before building a new system. The days of just bolting up an engine to a generator and expecting it to work are over. Torsional dampening devices are now often necessary to prevent premature equipment wear or catastrophic failure.
Torsional vibration effects all engines, and is caused by the pulsating torque applied to the crankshaft from the firing of each cylinder. The crankshaft actually twists back and forth slightly with each stroke. This vibration is especially present in diesel engines, due to their high compression ratios. The pulsating output of the engine can be calculated as a frequency that changes with RPM. The higher the RPM, the higher the frequency. Problems start to occur as the firing frequency of the engine begins to match the natural frequency of the driven equipment. Typically the natural frequency of t
he driven equipment is so much higher than the engine’s that it isn’t an issue. However, with faster turning engines, it becomes a concern.
Natural frequency is the same phenomenon that allows a singer to break a wine glass. If a singer matches the natural frequency of the glass with enough volume, vibration in the glass will amplify to the point of shattering. This harmonic frequency is determined by factors including an object’s mass and spring rate. That is why wine glasses with different weights will break at different frequencies, requiring a singer to change their pitch to match the unique frequency of the glass.
Engine components have natural frequencies too, which are influenced by their inertia, mass, spring rate and twist. Like wine glasses, smaller engines have lower inertias and therefore lower natural frequencies. This may bring the system’s natural frequency to within the firing frequency of the engine at typical RPMs. Running equipment within this range can sometimes be heard as a “groan” which goes away when the RPM is increased. Operating within these frequencies puts added stress on engine components, and can cause oil leaks, premature failure of pumps, bearings and drive shafts. In worst cases a crank shaft can literally snap, just like a singer breaking a wine glass. Fixed speed engines, such as generators, can be more susceptible to resonance, since the engine speed can’t be lowered or raised to shift it’s frequency.
Fortunately, hazardous frequencies can be identified through a TVA, and engine systems can be tuned to keep their frequency a safe distance from the preferred speed of the engine. We couple a lot of different equipment to the back and the front of our engines, and strive to make sure everything is compatible before we build it. Our TVA testing will help optimize design and will also identify the engine speeds to avoid, protecting engine components from harmful frequencies and ensuring years of reliable performance.
Steve Fish tends to trust his gut, and the results speak for themselves. As a young man, he felt Alaska was a much better fit for him than college in the lower 48. Over the years Steve has become a recognized highliner and leader in Alaska’s fishing industry. Photos of the deck of his boat, the Kariel, overloaded and literally awash with halibut adorn the walls of Chinook’s at Salmon Bay in Seattle. His boat and his equipment have taken him all over Alaska in his fishing career. When it came time to replace his main, and his generator, he wanted to pick the right machinery manufacturer. He chose MER. “I like dealing with them; they’re very professional,” he explains. “If they didn’t have answers to my questions, they said so and got the information.” One key to Fish’s success is continually upgrading Kariel, keeping downtime to a minimum while maximizing efficiency on deck and in the engine room.
“We’re a family owned business”, says Tyler Allen, Operations Manager, and owner Bob Allen’s son. “We’ve been involved in the Alaskan fishing industry since the 30’s. A lot of us here have been, or are commercial fisherman. We get it. This equipment is your livelihood. It’s big, it’s complicate, and there are a lot of moving parts. We place a tremendous weight on reliability and making sure what we supply really fits the need.”
The result is a very successful repower of the 30-year-old 66’ x 20’ Ed Monk long liner design. The new John Deere main, a 6135AFM75 (425 HP) , and MG65-KS1 (65 kW) Genset configured by MER was installed without a hitch by Hansen Boat yard, and hasn’t missed a beat.
The fuel savings have been impressive, especially at idle. “We idle at .3 gph, and since we do a lot of idling it becomes a significant cost savings,” Fish said.
Fish choose Hansen Boat Company in Everett for the work, and couldn’t be happier. “They’re terrific,” he says. “And they’re innovative. They don’t do cookie-cutter work.” The venerable company was started by the Hansen family in the 1920s, and has developed a reputation for top quality construction and renovating.
“I’d been looking at the John Deere for a while,” Fish says. The existing, original Cummins was still doing its job, but it was time to upgrade. “I figured a new electronic engine would be a good investment. The 12.5 liter Deere just wasn’t quite enough for what I needed, but when it was reconfigured to 13.5 liters, that was just about perfect.”
Kariel’s existing genset wasn’t quite due for replacement, but the time was right to move into the electronic age for that as well. Steve decided to go with MER’s 65 kW Bollard MG65-KT1, adding a SeaDrive PTO to the front to handle the deck hydraulics.
Steve Fish’s reputation goes beyond the success he has on the water. His quiet confidence and communications skills have helped him become a leader in the longlining fishery. “Fishermen need to be involved,” Fish says of the industry aspect of the profession. As past president and current board member of the Alaska Longline Fishermen’s Association, he has always looked out for commercial fishing interests.
A member of the Fisheries Conservation Alliance, Fish has championed Rockfish conservation and sustainable fishing. “We need to be involved in conservation with an eye toward how it will be to make a living long term, and how our kids will make a living.”
When Fish learned about MER’s SCOR (Sea-Change Oil Regeneration) system, he opted to have them added to his two new engines, as he grasped the long-term savings in fewer oil changes, reduced oil disposal and longer engine life. “The less oil product I buy, the better for me and the better for the earth,” he says.
Fish has three children of his own: Lexi, Eva and Erikson. The three of them grew up around fishing, and they and his wife Kari (Kariel) head out with him occasionally. “These are good family times,” Fish says. His son-in-law Adam Hackett even joins the team when he’s not fishing his own salmon troller/longliner.
Steve Fish’s gut sense has come through for him once again. The repower has been a success all the way around. MER and Hansen made the process simple and professional. “I’m very satisfied with how the project went,” Fish says.
SeaDrive PTOs are engine mounted systems that allows you to safely transfer power from your engine to various other equipment. Whether you want to power your pumps, hydraulics, transmissions, generators, or custom equipment the possibilities are endless.
The SeaDrive PTO has been meticulously engineered with ease of installation, safety, accuracy, durability, and serviceability in mind. It features an impressive heavy duty housing that is simply bolted on and includes a universal SAE pump mount; saving you time, money & frustration. It is pre-aligned and includes a built-in torsional coupling; making SeaDrive the most safe and accurate PTO available. SeaDrive can come direct drive or with any type of clutch for ultimate versatility & control.
The SeaDrive is easy to live with and easy to maintain. The thoughtful design includes a spare belt, loctite, spline grease, USCG compliant shrouds, and all hardware necessary to install. All SeaDrive models are marine epoxy powder coated for tough and durable corrosion resistance. SeaDrive PTOs are built to last a lifetime of hard work to keep you running. These are what PTOs should be!
Fore more information visit http://www.merequipment.com/products/mer-seadrive-pto.aspx
Designing an exhaust and blanketing system can be time consuming, stressful and expensive. It takes a long time to design the exhaust, fabricate and install the piping, then go through the process all over again with lagging. The work is being done twice and costs twice as much. If the vessel is in a yard at the time there is also that daily expense as well. We understand the frustrations of implementing a custom exhaust system and there is a better way to get it done.
MER Equipment uses advanced CAD software to design a 3D model of the entire exhaust assembly as well as insulation blankets before they are made. Designing in CAD software saves time and money, resulting in higher quality, with better fit and integration into the system.
Imagine having MER produce the entire exhaust assembly and blankets simultaneously from a few basic dimensions. Our products are fully customizable – from material selection, to flex sections, flanges, wet or dry, pipe or tube sizing and more.
Daryl Tatrow and the F/V Thunderbolt is a good example. Daryl contacted us to develop a custom exhaust system for his twin Yanmar 6LPA engines, which typically use water cooled exhaust. Due to specific space and sizing constraints, wet exhaust would not fit in his engine room; necessitating a dry alternative. The constraints also made it impossible to use a traditional flex section. We developed this 4″ system which includes a custom 321 SS ultra short flex section and assembles with stainless steel Marmon flanges to conserve space. The flex section is made from 5 layers of bellows, making it essentially 5x as flexible as standard exhaust bellows. This means it only needs to be 1/5 the length of standard marine flex sections. We also provided a custom machined flange to integrate the system with the original turbo outlet and replace the wet exhaust mixing elbow.
Using this CAD model we were not only able to ensure accuracy but we were also able to design custom fiberglass insulation blanketing for the entire system; made extra thick to keep engine room temperatures down. Because the exhaust assembly and blankets were made from the same model they were also made at the same time; cutting down lead time.
This system achieves the customer’s requirements for compactness, ease of assembly, heat reduction and longevity. We are proud to be an all-encompassing resource for custom exhaust projects such as this.
Whether you need a fully customized system, or you just need advice with your current system, don’t hesitate to give MER a call. We provide accurate, timely service, and deliver high quality products that will stand the test of time.
Ivan Lorraine Fox, our founder, father, grandfather, great-grandfather, teacher, mentor, and friend Passed away peacefully surrounded by his family on March 10th, 2013 in Seattle WA.
Born in Prosser, WA. Nov. 14th 1918, Ivan was the 2nd eldest of eight children born of William and Dolly Fox. Ivan labored in the Three Cs out of High School to help support the family after the great depression. He was good with a baseball and enjoyed extra privileges because of his talents on the field. He rode a Harley back in those days but had to hide it in the woods so his mother wouldn’t find out.
In 1940 he lost his father to a heart attack, and in 1941 he and his brother rode a steamship to Kodiak where they lived in a one room unheated cabin with 4 guys working for the Navy building concrete bunkers on the island in preparation for a suspected Japanese invasion. He sent the majority of his earnings home to support his mother and siblings during trying times at home.
In the spring of 1943 he came home to join the navy, because the war was on, but was rejected for combat duty because of a defective right foot. He went to work at the Navy base in Bremerton for a brief time with his brother Dean. Dean had a friend at the San Juan Fishing and Packing Co. who had told him they were hiring. They took the ferry over to Seattle, walked to the office at pier 31, and got hired on. They went north together on the power scow M/V Viekoda, with Captain John Spailin. When they got to Kodiak Dean was put on the power scow Malina, as a deck hand. Ivan was put on the San Antonio, a 70 foot wooden tender, with a 50 hp Atlas engine. Ivan spent the summer on the 6 Knt. San Antonio as a mate/deck hand buying salmon around the Island for San Juan.
In the fall of 1943 after returning from AK, Ivan attended the Commercial Marine School on Catalina Island. After graduation he joined the Maritime Service (Merchant Marines) and shipped out to the South Pacific on tankers, to supply fuel to the Pacific Fleet fighting the war. He volunteered for tanker duty as able bodied seaman on a floating bomb because they were paying an extra $10 a month and it allowed him to send more money home to his mother and siblings.
In the spring of 1944 he went back to Kodiak this time fishing salmon around the island with Bill Pikus. Back in the day when men were men and women were too. Ivan’s job was rowing the seine skiff, holding a set by hand before they had outboard motors.
In May of 1945, he checked in with George King, Superintendent, of San Juan Fishing and Packing Co. George made him skipper of the San Antonio, the tender he had mated on in 43. The summers of 1945-46 he ran the San Antonio out of Uganik Bay buying fish for San Juan Packing. In the fall of 1946, the book keeper quit, right in the middle of paying off the crews. George, desperate for help, gave Ivan the job of cannery book keeper. Thus beginning his illustrious career in the salmon processing industry.
Ivan met Lillian “Jody” Joten in Ballard. They were married in Oct. of 1951 and were constant companions until the end. For 40 years Jody and Ivan traveled together to Kodiak where they spent their summers in Uganik Bay with their three children, Christy, Mike, and Steve, together with a long succession of Beagles. The cannery changed hands from San Juan, then owned by the Calvert family, to Wiz Fish a subsidiary of New England Fish Co. Ivan remained over the years as a permanent fixture in his little house on the point, with his beloved “Port O’Brien.
Over his 40 year career with NEFCO he was eventually responsible for salmon price negotiations with the fisherman’s unions across the state of Alaska. When NEFCO went out of business in 1980 his cannery in Uganik was leased to SeaAlaska Native Corp. owner of Ocean Beauty Seafood’s. Ivan was hired to manage the Uganik plant and the three Bristol Bay canneries they bought from the NEFCO trustee, Sam Rubenstein. His second retirement was from Ocean Beauty when they sold the plant in Kodiak to a fisherman’s co-op put together by Olie Harder. Olie wanted Ivan to stay on in Uganik but Ivan decided to make a new summer home in Egegik where he managed the Bristol Bay fleet for Nelson Brothers (NELBRO) who had purchased the cannery from SeaAlaska. He stayed on with NELBRO (later Alaska General Seafood’s) to manage their 3 plants and fishing fleet from his new summer home in Egegik. He again negotiated fish prices with the fleet and managed the tenders across the Bay.
In 1964 he and Jody, together with the Uganik Port Engineer Larry Schusted, founded an engine service business on Ballard Ave. They felt the company was needed to support the fishing fleet in Alaska when it was difficult to get service from the lower 48 during the short summer fishing seasons.
They bought the Chinese laundry on Ballard Ave for $15,000. (Before that it had been the Star Bar). And today is the home of Doc Street Brokers. The name of the little start-up was chosen when Ivan went to get a phone. The phone company told him they had to have a name to go with the number and Marine Engine Repair Co. was born. The Company name was later shortened to MER as they broadened their product line to customizing propulsion engines and building customized generators for the fishing fleet. Ivan and Jody turned the company over to their son Mike, and Son in Law, Bob Allen in 1980. They are today a third generation family business carrying on Ivan’s legacy of service to the work boat industry.
Ivan loved his work in the fishing industry so much he retired three times before it finally stuck. It is commonly said in Kodiak, that Ivan Fox invented Salmon. He was fondly known as Ivan Fish of The New England Fox Company (NEFCO) where he was the VP of Operations and superintendent of their 6 processing plants in Alaska. He witnessed the rise and fall of Salmon Traps. He was there when Alaska became the 49th state in the union and helped build the first salmon seine fleet and set gillnet fleets on the Island before statehood.
Ivan was known as a tough negotiator but always respected for his fair bargaining practice. He mentored many of the top seafood plant managers in the state today and was instrumental in lending money and a helping hand to some of the top fishermen in the state getting them their first foot up in the business. He will be sorely missed by the processing community and the salmon fishing fleet alike.
Ivan had a great love of cooking, gardening, travel, family, and Beagles. He never made it to Antarctica, about the only place on the planet he and Jody hadn’t made time to visit. Ivan was a natural negotiator; he had an uncanny ability to cut directly to the heart of any disagreement to propose a fair compromise that could be embraced by both sides. He was successful in business, yet never compromised his integrity for advantage. His word was his bond, his handshake sealed many a million dollar contract over a bar napkin. He liked cheap beer and loved to share it. He was generous to a fault never embracing the frills of success, more comfortable with the joy of giving than receiving. Ivan was always game for a friendly wager, one of his many ways of showing affection. He said playing poker with a man for a few hours will tell you more about his character than any other measure. He loved to play cribbage, particularly over a brandy, keeping one eye on the pressure cooker canning salmon or clams on the porch in Uganik. He was a compassionate man with a quick wit and uncanny memory for all the people and events that made up his long and illustrious career. He was truly a legend in his time, admired and respected by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance.
He is survived by his wife and love of 61 years, Lillian “Jody” Fox, his three children Christy and her husband Robert Allen, Mike Fox and his fiancé Judy Simon, & Steve Fox, grandchildren Tyler Allen and his wife Rachel, Ashley Allen, Chelsea, Savannah, and Sean Fox, great grandchildren Ivan & Evelyn Allen, his youngest brother Mel Fox, Beagle Molly, his MER family, and many “adopted” sons and daughters. He will be missed by all who knew and loved him. At Ivan’s request, in lieu of flowers, please make a donation to your local Salvation Army or the Seattle Fisherman’s Memorial in his name.
Ivan’s principles, his compassion, and his work ethic live on in the daily lives of those of us left behind to carry his torch, to tell his stories, and honor his legacy.
Our new compact marine generator set provides efficient power with a very small foot print. The MER jacketed marine manifold is designed to eliminate unsafe engine surface temperatures, while our electronics package supplies warning or shut down on high coolant temp or low oil pressure. Optional safeties will stop the engine on low coolant or oil levels, and overspeed. Further options include analog gages in the engine room and the start-stop panel 80 feet distant-or more.
Powered by the Kubota D1005-E3BG diesel, our generator takes advantage of Kubota’s 80 years building diesel engines. Kubota is the number one engine manufacturer of diesel engines below 100 HP, and their Quality Inspection Facility is state of the art, insuring its engines meet the highest expectations of the marine market. The BG series offers a solid timing gear train without the use of belts. The unique mechanical governor system ensures stable output and regulation. Kubota’s generator engine lineup provides compact, high performance, rugged engine design built for maximum efficiency & longevity.
The high efficiency compact A.C. generator with dedicated secondary excitation windings, supplies unsurpassed voltage control by using an independent AVR power supply & 300% sustained short circuit capacity as standard equipment. Our structural steel frame system includes captive mounts with 95% efficient, anti-vibration suspension mounts installed at crankshaft center-line to minimize vibration transfer. Optional galvanizing keeps the engine room looking new.
Our complete line of accessories supports our line of marine gen sets: Check out our Multi-layer exhaust flex sections, Puradyn oil filters, and our SeaFire Marine LEDs.
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Changing engine oil every 200 hours is a fact of life-or is it? Some commercial fleets running MER’s new SCOR oil regeneration system are now extending their oil change intervals up to 12,000 hours. Some users never change their oil at all.
Features and Benefits:
1-Increases engine life
2-Improves fuel efficiency by maintaining oil lubricity, purity and additives
3-Extends oil and filter change interval according to oil analysis
4-Removes the soot
5-Proven technology improved by additive impregnated filters
6-Easy to install and monitor
What’s a bypass filter you ask? It’s a secondary oil filter for your engine that more thoroughly removes contaminates from the oil. To understand what it does, and why they’re important, it’s good to compare them to how an engine’s regular oil filter operates. An engine’s standard oil filter is full flow, meaning it filters all the oil from the engine’s oil pump before it circulates through the engine, lubricating and cooling engine components. A full flow filter is limited in how well it can filter the oil before it restricts oil flow to the engine too much. The finer the filtration, the more restriction it creates. Too much restriction and the engine does not get adequate lubrication. A bypass system diverts a small portion of the oil coming from the pmp, filters it, and bypasses the oil past the engine back to the oil pan. What the filter lacks in volume it makes up in refinement. Regular filters can only filter down to around 25 microns, any smaller and the flow would be too restricted through the filter. A good bypass filter takes out all particles bigger than a micron, particles 1/25 the size of what the standard filter catches. It’s a lot like a swimming pool filter-continuously filtering a portion of the water, over time adding up to the whole pool.
Bypass filtration isn’t a new idea and there are several makes available. We just think SCOR does it the best. They have been manufacturing oil bypass filtration systems since 1988, and added several improvements to the technology over the years. It can be used for filtration of engine, transmission, and hydraulic oil.
What sets them apart are three things:
1-Superior filtration, because they filter to less than one micron. The finished oil actually has fewer impurities than brand new oil out of the jug.
2-Oil Additive Package. Besides keeping the oil cleaner than new, it maintains the oil’s additives by impregnating the filter media with a time released additive package. It doesn’t matter how clean the oil is if the additives that protect engine components are worn out, the oil would stilll need to be changed.
3-Heater Element. SCOR is the only bypass filter that incorporates a heater element to remove moisture from the lube oil. If you’re not removing moisture, you can’t extend the oil change interval.
These added features are what allow oil change intervals to be extended longer than with any other filtration system. Some trucking fleets running the systems just never change their oil, even after a million miles. There’s nothing wrong with changing your engine oil every 200 hours. That’s the conventional wisdom. We’ve been skeptical of the claims that you can go thousands of hours without changing your oil. We did our homework. We’ve talked to the fleet managers who use the products and read the military and independent laboratory test studies. It really does work.